Monday, August 5, 2013

Norway considers 5% booze tax increase - The Drinks Business

5th August, 2013 by Patrick Schmitt

Norway has the second highest taxes on alcohol in the world after Iceland

Plans to increase taxation on drinks by 5% in next year?s budget were outlined in a pre-budget report by Norway?s Ministry of Finance, which was picked up by the country?s TV2?station.

The document justified a proposed 5% tax increase with information to suggest such a rise would reduce Norway?s alcohol consumption by KR469 million (?51.7m), although it forecast that there would be a jump in smuggling by KR82m (?9m).

In a letter to Norway?s Ministry of Health and Care Services, the Ministry of Finance wrote, ?Given the assumptions built into the model, it seems that the tax increase on alcohol would reduce Norwegian consumption of alcoholic beverages.?

According to a Norwegian online news resource The Local, Norway, with KR415 (?45.80) on each litre of pure alcohol, has the second highest alcohol taxes in the world after Iceland, which levies KR 461 (?50.90) on the same quantity.

The publication also pointed out that the equivalent levy in the UK would see alcohol taxed at KR230 (?25.40) for each litre of pure alcohol, half that of Iceland.

However, Kjetil Lund, a state secretary in the finance ministry, said described suggestions the government will raise the tax on alcohol as speculation.

?The government has not taken a position on the tax arrangements for 2014 yet,? he said.

He also commented, as reported by The Nose, ?There is often speculation in advance of higher alcohol taxes and we do not comment on such speculation. History shows, however, that most years we have not increased alcohol taxes.?

This article was published on Monday, August 5th, 2013 at 11:01 am. You can follow any responses to this article through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can skip to the end and leave a response.


final four Ray J I Hit It First Rick Pitino Spike Albrecht NCAA Championship Game michigan basketball ncaa final four

Peter Capaldi named as next 'Doctor Who' star

LONDON (AP) ? Peter Capaldi is going from spin doctor to "Doctor Who."

The BBC announced Sunday that the Scottish actor, best known as venom-spitting political fixer Malcolm Tucker in the sitcom "The Thick of It" and its film spin-off, "In the Loop," is the new star of "Doctor Who," the famed science fiction series soon to celebrate its 50th anniversary.

The identity of the new Doctor had been the subject of frantic speculation, and the revelation was made with fanfare befitting one of Britain's best-known shows ? during a live suppertime television broadcast.

Capaldi is the 12th actor to play the Doctor, a galaxy-hopping Time Lord who travels in the Tardis, a time machine shaped like an old-fashioned British police telephone booth. At age 55, he's also the oldest since the first Doctor, William Hartnell.

Capaldi, a fan of the show since childhood, said that "being asked to play the Doctor is an amazing privilege."

"Like the Doctor himself I find myself in a state of utter terror and delight," he said.

Capaldi has a long list of movie, television and stage credits, from the 1983 film "Local Hero," to zombie thriller "World War Z," to the BBC's recent newsroom drama "The Hour." He is currently playing Cardinal Richelieu in BBC drama "The Musketeers." He's also an Oscar winner ? he directed "Franz Kafka's It's a Wonderful Life," which won the Academy Award for best short film in 1995.

"Doctor Who" was first broadcast in 1963 and is now one of the BBC's most popular programs, both in Britain and abroad. Its longevity is due partly to the flexibility of the premise. The Doctor can regenerate into new bodies and can travel to any point in space or time.

"Doctor Who" ran from 1963 to 1989, and was revived to acclaim in 2005. Since then, the Doctor has been played by Christopher Eccleston, David Tennant and Matt Smith, who took the part in 2010.

The role will be a dramatic change from Capaldi's turn as Tucker, a political manipulator known for his ceaseless and creative use of expletives. "Doctor Who" is a firmly child-friendly program.

"I think Malcolm has been banished from the mirror by this Doctor Who, who certainly would not put up with any of Malcolm's language or attitude," Capaldi said on the BBC show Sunday.

Smith will leave after a November episode to mark the show's 50th anniversary and a Christmas special that will see him regenerate into Capaldi. Capaldi's first full episode will air next year.


phoenix coyotes bruce irvin charlie st cloud young jeezy world wildlife fund rosario dawson keith olbermann

BART labor talks resume as planned strike looms

SAN FRANCISCO (AP) ? Union leaders and Bay Area Rapid Transit managers were holding talks aimed at heading off a strike that would leave hundreds of thousands of San Francisco area commuters scrambling for other ways to get to work.

The two sides held negotiations Saturday, with wide gaps remaining on key issues including wages, pensions, worker safety and health care costs.

BART's two largest unions Thursday issued a 72-hour notice that employees would walk off the job Monday if they didn't reach agreement on a new contract by midnight Sunday. The labor action would shut down one of the nation's largest transit systems for the second time in a month.

Antonette Bryant, president of Amalgamated Transit Union Local 1555, said no progress was made during Friday's negotiations, which ended earlier than she had expected.

"Our team is giving it our best shot. We really do not want to disrupt service Monday," Bryant said Saturday. "We want a deal. We will do whatever it takes."

BART spokesman Rick Rice said agency managers are hopeful they can reach an agreement before Monday or continue negotiations without a service shutdown.

"We're making every effort possible to avoid any disruptions on Monday," Rice said Saturday.

Bay Area agencies are preparing ways to get commuters to work if there's a strike, but officials say there's no way to make up for the BART system.

"BART really is the backbone of the transit network. No other transit agency has the ability to absorb BART's capacity if there's a disruption," said John Goodwin, spokesman for the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. "We're still hoping for the best, but it's time to prepare for the worst."

If there's a BART strike, transit agencies are planning to add bus and ferry service, keep carpool lanes open all day and even give away coffee gift cards to encourage drivers to pick up riders. They're also encouraging workers to avoid peak traffic hours or telecommute if possible.

When BART workers shut down train service for four days in early July, roadways were packed and commuters waited in long lines for buses and ferries. The unions agreed to call off that strike and extend their contracts until Sunday while negotiations continued.

A strike next week could lead to more gridlock than last month's strike, which came around the Fourth of July holiday when many workers were on vacation.

Bay Area and state officials have been pressuring BART managers and union leaders to reach an agreement this weekend, saying a strike would create financial hardship for working families and hurt the region's economy.


sam young ramon sessions portland trail blazers blagojevich new mexico state kevin rose sessions

Sunday, August 4, 2013

Parental Guidance: The Smurfs 2 and Europa Report


Rating: PG-13, for combat violence and martial arts action throughout, and for brief sensuality and language.

It's a big, dumb action movie that knows it's a big, dumb action movie -- which, in theory, makes this sequel preferable in some ways to big, dumb action movies that are under that delusion that they're serious art. This is an astonishingly violent PG-13 movie. There's an insane amount of gunfire, much of which comes courtesy of Bruce Willis as a retired Joe who cheerily shares the arsenal he's hidden in his quiet, suburban home. But none of the casualties from all this sophisticated weaponry results in any blood. This being a big-studio blockbuster based on a toy, nothing really matters -- even he obliteration of a major world city with the touch of a button.


4/20 boston Cnn Live Logan airport Miranda rights Police Scanner boston herald

Google Play Edition Motorola Moto X rumored

The Motorola Moto X is official as of yesterday, and, as we concluded in our Editorial Roundtable, it is not a device for us, the geeks, but for the masses, as Motorola emphasized multiple times during our brief stay in New York.

We?ll have a lot more coming on the Motorola Moto X but we?re positive you realized that the user interface on the phone is pretty close to stock, give or take future carrier bloatware, as the phone will be available on all US carriers. On that exact vein, a report has been popped up that a Google Play Motorola Moto X might arrive soon, to join the HTC One and the Samsung Galaxy S 4.

There are not too many details about this, except the bit referencing that only a 16GB version will be available, sans customization options.

This brings us to the question: do you care about Google Play edition phones? Or specifically, a Google Play Edition Motorola X? Or are you relying on the development community to bring you stock Android ROMs?

Source: AndroidGuys


anonymous texas chainsaw massacre nfl playoffs crystal harris Texas A Texas A&m cotton bowl

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Governor Quinn Signs Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Act - With Some of Nation?s Strongest Regulations, Law Will Help Ease Pain for People With Chronic Conditions, Cancer Patients and Veterans with Disabilities

Sorry, Readability was unable to parse this page for content.


jon jones vs rashad evans earth day 2012 jon jones rashad evans ufc jones vs evans watergate pregnant man outside lands 2012 lineup

Pet Safety Alert When Jets Take to the Skies during Seafair | Canine ...

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:?August 2, 2013Jets roaring in our skies at Seafair may be a captivating event for humans, but the loud noise can be hard on our companion animals. With a little planning, you can keep your pets calm and safe at home.

The Patriot Jet Team will take to the local skies over Lake Washington Friday through Sunday Aug. 2-4 from 1:45 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. It?s all part of the Boeing Air Show at Seafair this weekend.

If you can hear the jets at home, keep your furry family members safely indoors in an enclosed room, preferably one without windows. If you are expecting guests, keep your pets in a room with plenty of fresh water, that is off-limits to guests. ? Surround your pets with their favorite toys and other familiar objects to create a calming environment. Play soothing music and keep the room as quiet as possible by closing doors, windows, and blinds.

The biggest risk is that pets will get loose and become lost. Even if a pet is secured inside, the sound of jets flying overhead can cause them to panic. Your companion animals should be microchipped and they should be wearing an identification tag on their collar. If you have moved, make sure that the microchip company has your current address and phone number.

The Seattle Humane Society offers $20 microchipping (includes national registration) for pets in low-income households. Appointments are available on a drop-in basis 7 days a week from 2 p.m. ? 4 p.m. For more information call (425) 641-0080 or visit the microchipping page on our website at


Diane Rich Dog Training, LLC




big ten tournament 2012 dennis quaid bruce weber fired notorious big biggie smalls lyrics azores emmylou harris

OHSU receives breast cancer grant

Joe Gray of OHSU?s Knight Cancer Institute will use a $225,000 grant from the Susan G. Komen Foundation to investigate novel methods of controlling and combating metastatic breast cancer.

Oregon Health & Science University will receive a $225,000 grant from the Susan G. Komen Oregon and Southwest Washington chapter for breast cancer research.

The grant goes to Joe Gray of OHSU?s Knight Cancer Institute. He will investigate novel methods of controlling and combating metastatic breast cancer.

Gray will explore how to target a tumor?s micro-environment, lessening its ability to escape treatment and how to exploit the inherent genomic instability of basal breast cancers, such as triple negative.

Komen?s investment in Oregon and Southwest Washington totals nearly $29 million, including $11.3 million for research and $17.4 million for screening, education and survivor support for women and their families.

Elizabeth Hayes covers health care for the Business Journal.


NBA 2K14 Roland Garros bay news 9 George Karl Shannon Rogers Guess Richardson Leslie Van Houten paris jackson

Feds shut down Calif debt collectors

WASHINGTON (AP) ? Federal officials say they are shutting down a California group of debt collectors for alleged extortion, humiliating debtors by calling their friends, employers and families, and making false threats of lawsuits.

The Federal Trade Commission said Thursday that it's using a temporary restraining order to halt four people accused of operating an elaborate debt collection scheme under seven different company names in Orange and Riverside counties.

The agency says Thai Han, Jim Tran Phelps, Keith Hua and James Novella frequently changed company names to avoid law enforcement.

Using a court order, the agency has frozen their assets and has appointed a temporary receiver to handle the defendants' business while they proceed with the case.

It wasn't immediately known if the accused have legal representation.


?2013 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


applebees jeff gordon veterans day When Is Veterans Day 2012 brooke burke Alexa Vega Bram Stoker books

Video: Wheels Up and ready for takeoff

Sorry, Readability was unable to parse this page for content.


Granbury Texas CA Lottery madonna madonna Billboard Music Awards 2013 VA Lottery knicks

Friday, August 2, 2013

Number Nine, Number Nine... Fingers Filner Hits on Deputy Mayor of Escondido, No Biggie

Number Nine, Number Nine... Fingers Filner Hits on Deputy Mayor of Escondido, No Biggie

He didn't touch this woman -- no headlock, no weird tongue stuff. Maybe he felt he had to be proper because she was, you know, the Deputy Mayor of a nearby city. But he did begin peppering her with "What's Your Sitch?" questions at a professional event. She says she did not feel harassed -- but she did think it was inappropriate, and reported the "strange encounter" to San Diego Democratic head Jess Durfee, who thanked her for the information and then, of course, did nothing. Despite the fact that the major players here -- Lori Saldana, Jess Durfee -- are alive and perfectly capable of communicating the national media continues its intense interest in not asking them any questions. Posted by: Ace at 07:45 PM


Google Docs Huell Howser Justin Bieber Smoking Weed Katherine Webb Cut for Bieber AJ McCarron ups

Total War: Rome II Is Impressive, But Can It Handle Hannibal?

While no mere video game could ever hope to accurately emulate one of the greatest military commanders of all-time, Total War: Rome II has the power, scale and versatility to give Hannibal a good run.

Now I?m not saying anyone should march an entire army packed with pachyderms over the Pyrenees and Alps into Northern Italy ? that would be silly. I?m just saying that, should one be so inclined, they could do so in The Creative Assembly?s latest when it hits PC next month.

Definitely going to want to keep those mountain passes guarded, kids.


megamillions drawing olbermann mega millions march 30 lucky numbers odds of winning mega millions mary mary sag aftra merger

GOP senator's changed vote puts ATF nominee on verge of confirmation

WASHINGTON ? B. Todd Jones is on the cusp of becoming the first Senate-confirmed director of the ATF on Thursday, after a fierce lobbying effort successfully swayed a single Republican lawmaker to change her vote.

Democrats had expected a close result, but nonetheless were confident they had the votes to ultimately end a Republican filibuster of Jones? nomination to lead the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives when they decided to bring it to the Senate floor this week.

But a dramatic scene began to play out when Sen. Lisa Murkowski (R-Alaska), one of the Republicans that Democrats had expected to break from the minority party, cast an initial no vote. After five other Republicans voted yes and it was clear Murkowski?s would be the decisive vote, the Alaska senator was surrounded in the well of the Senate chamber by senators from both parties, including members of the leadership and the top Democrat and Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, who could be seen pleading their cases.

PHOTOS: Team Obama, where are they now?

At one point Sen. Susan Collins (R-Maine), one of the Republicans who had voted to advance Jones? nomination, pulled Murkowski off of the Senate floor to talk in private.

?I was concerned that she was being pummeled by both sides and thought she might need a little break,? Collins later told reporters, joking that they just chatted about a recent dinner Murkowski had hosted at her home.

After nearly an hour, Murkowski returned to the Senate floor and announced she would instead vote yes.

In an unusual step that speaks to the narrow result, Senate leaders held open the vote so that a Democratic senator, Heidi Heitkamp of North Dakota, could return to the Capitol to cast the clinching vote.

President Obama nominated Jones to be the permanent director in January, as he rolled out a series of other executive actions to address gun violence that he planned to make in response to the school massacre in Newtown, Conn. Jones has been the agency?s acting director since 2011, when the previous director was dismissed amid fallout from the Operation Fast and Furious gun-tracking controversy.

PHOTOS: 2013's memorable political moments

His status remained in doubt for much of the year as Republicans moved to block his and a number of other executive appointments. The National Rifle Assn. has also typically mounted opposition to confirming ATF leadership.

But the NRA?s late decision to remain neutral on Jones? confirmation, and a separate agreement between Senate Democrats and Republicans to process other stalled nominations, led Democrats to believe they could round up the needed 60 votes to break a GOP filibuster.

Republicans continued to express concern about ongoing investigations related to Jones? tenure as U.S. attorney in Minnesota. Iowa Sen. Charles E. Grassley, the top Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee, said Wednesday that confirming him amid questions over his handling of whistle-blower complaints would send ?a chilling message to all employees? of the ATF.

?We should not be conducting this vote until this matter is resolved,? he said.

Grassley would later plead his case to Murkowski directly as it seemed she was wavering. She could be heard telling Democratic colleagues that she was concerned about the investigation Grassley cited.

At one point Sen. John McCain, who had helped broker the recent agreement that ended a showdown between the parties over threatened rule changes on nominations, was pulled into the scrum by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) to talk to Murkowski. Other senators later said concern about a return to the brinkmanship over filibuster rules was part of the case made to Murkowski.

?We?ve been able to march through some really difficult nominations like NLRB and EPA, and the last thing we want right now as we head into the fall - where I still think there is a good chance we could get some kind of bipartisan agreement on the budget and on the debt ? ? is to leave with some radioactive blowup,? said Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.), a lead supporter of Jones? nomination.

Another major factor, Klobuchar said, was the fact that since a 2006 law passed that required Senate approval of ATF directors, no nominee has been confirmed.

?At some point why would you have a confirmable position when under both George Bush and Barack Obama the Senate has refused to confirm anyone?? she said.

[Updated, 3 p.m. July 31: In a statement released by her office, Murkowski explained that her initial no vote was ?based on my understanding that the nominee was the subject of an investigation, because I believe that it is common sense not to confirm someone who is the subject of an active investigation.?

During the vote, Murkowski added, colleagues told her ?that the investigation phase has concluded and a mediation process has been initiated to resolve this issue.? Based on that information, she changed her vote so that Jones? nomination could proceed to a final up-or-down vote. At that point, she said she would vote against Jones.]

Murkowski has in recent years become a key swing vote in the Senate, often breaking with Republicans to support Democratic initiatives. First appointed to the Senate in 2002 after her father resigned his seat to become governor, Murkowski won a second full term in 2010 after first losing in a Republican primary to a tea party-backed challenger. She later waged a successful write-in campaign to win in the general election.

Follow Politics Now on Twitter and Facebook

Twitter: @mikememoli


black panther party frank martin pink slime eagle cam trayvon martin case affordable care act the line

Simpson makes most of his 1st Bridgestone round

Webb Simpson chips to the ninth green during the first round of the Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013 at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. Simpson finished his round at 6-under par. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)

Webb Simpson chips to the ninth green during the first round of the Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013 at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. Simpson finished his round at 6-under par. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)

Tiger Woods watches his tee shot on the 11th hole during the first round of the Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013 at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)

Tiger Woods acknowledges fans after saving par on the 17th hole during the first round of the Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013 at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)

Tiger Woods chips to the 11th green during the first round of the Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013 at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio. (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)

Tiger Woods reacts after making a birdie on the eighth hole during the first round at the WGC Bridgestone Invitational golf tournament, at Firestone Country Club in Akron, Ohio, Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013. (AP Photo/Phil Long)

(AP) ? So much for course knowledge.

Webb Simpson, playing his first competitive round at Firestone Country Club, shot a 6-under 64 on Thursday to take a one-stroke lead in the Bridgestone Invitational.

It all came down to trust.

"Well, I knew it all through my caddie (Paul Tesori), who's been here so many years," Simpson said. "I just kind of had to listen to him."

Tesori has caddied for years on tour, for Vijay Singh and Jerry Kelly, in addition to being a pro himself.

"It's hard for us players to listen to our caddies, but he basically showed me where to go yesterday and told me where to hit it, where the lines were, what clubs to hit," said Simpson, the 2012 U.S. Open champion. "I didn't feel like it was my first time because he has so much experience here."

Seven-time Bridgestone winner Tiger Woods did not have to rely so much on the man on his bag, Joe LaCava, while shooting a 66. Woods has 11 top-10 finishes in his 13 starts at the course, so he clearly knows where to go.

Still, he needed his counsel from time to time.

"I hit a lot of good shots. I had a really good feel for the distance today, and Joey and I really read the wind right today," Woods said after his best opening round at the course since another 66 spurred him to a one-shot victory in 2005. "We changed a lot of shots out there, and we both had a really good handle on what we were doing feel-wise with the wind."

Henrik Stenson was alone in second with a 65. Defending champion Keegan Bradley, Ryan Moore and Chris Wood, another first-time entrant, matched Woods at 66.

Simpson had six birdies in an eight-hole span.

There was only one glitch.

"I wish I didn't bogey the last hole," he said after missing the green on the par 4 and failing to get up and down. "It's one area I've got to get better at. When I'm between clubs, hitting more club and swinging easy is where I've been struggling.

"You know, there's always something to work on."

Simpson hasn't won this season. He called his year "encouraging and frustrating."

"I feel like I've let a couple of tournaments go that maybe I should have closed out," he said.

Stenson started out birdie, eagle ? hitting his second shot 243 yards on the par-5 hole to inside 4 feet. He slowed down from there, parring every hole except for birdies at the 11th and 12th holes.

He had more problems with his outfit than the course. He was breaking in a new pair of shoes and felt a blister coming on at the turn, so had to switch to an older pair that didn't necessarily fit with his ensemble.

"They might not match the outfit perfectly, but it felt like I had socks on compared to the other ones," he said, grinning.

Woods would have a nice career if only World Golf Championship events, such as the Bridgestone, counted. He won three in a row (1999-2001) at Firestone, then had three top-five finishes before reeling off victories in his next four appearances (2005-2009), and missing the 2008 tournament while recovering from knee surgery.

In 41 WGC starts, he has 32 top-10 finishes.

There's something about Firestone that brings out the best in him.

"Luckily, over the years I've taken advantage of it," he said. "I have played well and I've scored well, and I've won my share of tournaments here."

Bradley won the Bridgestone a year ago when he shot a closing 64, and Jim Furyk, who had led all week, double-bogeyed the closing hole.

Bradley put together a workmanlike, efficient 66 that didn't include a bogey.

The 2011 PGA Championship winner doesn't want to stress out on defending his title.

"No, it's business as usual," he said. "I just want to not put too much pressure on myself to do anything crazy. I know this golf course fits me, so to let the course come to me is big here."

Another shot back at 67 in the star-studded field were Furyk, Jason Dufner, Bubba Watson, Rickie Fowler, Bill Haas and Luke Donald.

Fowler was speaking for a lot of players when he said that there are a lot of similarities between Firestone and Oak Hill, the site of the PGA Championship next week.

"If the course stays dry and it starts to firm up through the weekend, it's very comparable as far as you've got to drive the ball well and position yourself off the tee," said Fowler, who practiced at Oak Hill on Monday. "It's a great warm-up here, but obviously this is one of our bigger weeks of the year, too. Two great weeks, back-to-back, and two great golf courses."

While the world's top-ranked player, Woods, was in prime position, that wasn't necessarily the case for Nos. 2 and 3.

Phil Mickelson, coming off his dramatic victory at the British Open two weeks ago, struggled with his concentration and came in with a 72.

"Tonight I'll get a little bit more rest and try not to do too much and see if I can come out tomorrow a little bit more focused," he said.

He missed two par putts inside 3 feet on consecutive holes early in his round.

Rory McIlroy will defend his title at the PGA next week but hasn't won a tournament since then in a year of dramatic swings that included a Ryder Cup victory and a series of disappointments. He shot 70.

"I just threw a few shots away around the greens," he said. "You know, you start to save shots there and all of a sudden you're 3- , 4- or 5-under par."


Follow Rusty Miller on Twitter:

Associated Press


oaksterdam the fray national anthem dallas tornado oikos kentucky wildcats oakland school shooting nike nfl jerseys

Thursday, August 1, 2013

Salt Meter Tells You If Your Dinner Is Going To Slowly Kill You

Salt Meter Tells You If Your Dinner Is Going To Slowly Kill You

By now we all know that too much salt is bad for you. Excess salt intake leads to high blood pressure, which leads to all kinds of terrible things. But salt is in pretty much every processed food out there, and even the most ardent label reader can't divine how much sodium chloride is in the soup at the town diner. Besides, how much is "too much"? The folks at Thanko have brought some hard numbers to this ambiguous world with their new Handy Salt Meter.



harry connick jr Marc Maron amanda knox Danny Brown The Following Real Madrid Neverwinter